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HOW PEPSI BECAME COCA-COLA’S RIVAL

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Pepsi-cola

Enjoyed by Americans since 1898, Pepsi, it turns out, is a favorite among the Russians as well. Find out just how badly Khrushchev wanted a sip in this

How Did a Soft Drinks Brand End Up Being Associated with the Military?

We all know that feeling of anticipation as we reach for a cool, blue can. As our fingers press down and the aluminum gives way to a frothy explosion on a liquid amber surface. Then pure satisfaction as the cold, sweet beverage slides across our tongue and down our throat, leaving the tingling bite of carbonation in its wake. Delicious. Refreshing. Power. Enjoyed by Americans since 1898, Pepsi, it turns out, is a favorite among the Russians as well. Find out just how badly Khrushchev wanted a sip in this article of The Infographics Show. How Pepsi Became the 6th largest Military in the World.

How Pepsi Became Coca-Cola’s Rival

While America of the 1800s was gulping down its Coke, pharmacist Caleb D. Bradham was watching. Hoping to create a similar beverage of his own, he made a sweet carbonated drink in 1898 which he coined Pepsi-Cola. It was met with great success, and by 1902 Pepsi-Cola Company, Inc was born. In the years that followed, it underwent several changes in ownership, a tweak to its formulation, and extensive advertising and promotion. By the 1950’s it had successfully become Coca-Cola’s rival. The company would later merge with Frito-lay, Incorporated in the ‘60s, acquire the Tropicana and Dole brands in the ‘90s, and merge with the Quaker Oats company two years later. Today, PepsiCo’s most successful brands include much more than Pepsi cola. It profits from Frito-Lay snacks, Lipton teas, Tropicana juices, Gatorade drinks, Quaker Oats cereals, and Rold Gold pretzels as well.  

Coca cola

Most Valuable Global Brands List Forbes 2018

A pharmacist from North Carolina’s dream from over a century ago has turned into a reality. His company with its humble beginnings has reached a global level of success that he likely never believed possible. It even snagged a spot on the 2018 Forbes’ World’s Most Valuable Brands List. At number 29, Pepsi has an estimated worth of $18.4 billion. Pepsi, Diet Pepsi, and Pepsi Max alone each bring in over $1 billion in profits annually. Second only to Coca-Cola, Pepsi is among America’s top soda of choice. In Russia, Pepsi is second-to-none.

Pepsi Relationship with Russia

In fact, while the brand’s history is without a doubt impressive, it is its relationship with Russia that allowed it to achieve what no soda company had ever achieved before. For a time, Russia made Pepsi a top military power with an arsenal greater than that of most countries world-wide. But, just how did a soda company manage that? 

It all started during the height of the Cold War when President Dwight Eisenhower and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev came to an agreement. The USSR wanted to open trade with the US and the US wanted to promote capitalism in the USSR, so they agreed on a form of cultural exchange. Each would design an exhibition highlighting the achievements of their country for display in the other’s. The Soviet exhibition portrayed its achievements in areas in which it was superior, namely in space, and it opened in New York City in June of 1959. America included examples from its own culture in which it was paving the way, such as with appliances of various sorts and soda. The “American National Exhibition” opened in Moscow in July of that same year and The United States sent Vice President Richard Nixon as its host. However, the Moscow-based event got off to a rather rocky start.

Khrushchev was unimpressed with color TV. In fact, he was unimpressed with most everything on display, claiming that Russia would have the same technology itself in a matter of years. Further, he took advantage of the opportunity to talk shop, commenting angrily on the US government’s resolution against his presence in Eastern Europe. And, if that wasn’t enough, he gave his opinion that Nixon only feared communism because he couldn’t understand it. Nixon had a ready response.

pepsi

Pespsi became the first capitalist product to be sold in the U.S.S.R.

At some point as they argued, Khrushchev wiped his brow. This was when Donald Kendall saw his chance. The Pepsi representative gave Khrushchev a cool, refreshing drink. While the Soviet leader found the American exhibit lacking and the United States government meddlesome and uninformed, he could find no fault with the contents of his cup. And, just like that, Pepsi-Cola became the first capitalist product to be sold in the U.S.S.R.

Pepsi was not the only one to find opportunity that day; the press was handed a front-page story as well. Pictures of the two leaders as they argued beside a kitchen were soon published across America. The exchange itself was given the rather catchy and fitting title of “the kitchen debate.” Due to the publicity of the event, Nixon enjoyed benefits of his own. Photos with him thrusting a finger at Khrushchev were thought to demonstrate leadership and, some believe, helped him in his future bid for the presidency. But, between the soda company, the press, and the vice-president, Pepsi’s success following America’s exhibition in Moscow was inarguably the greatest and longest-lasting.  

Now, the arrangement to sell Pepsi in Russia was not made without a few glitches here and there. Though the Russians wanted permanent access to the drink, there was the somewhat significant problem of its payment. Russian currency was not universally accepted, and so they needed to make an alternative arrangement. They turned to their other beverage of choice as a solution.

soda

Pepsi in exchange for boats and submarines

The Russians gave PepsiCo the exclusive distribution rights for their Stolichnaya vodka. In turn, Pepsi became the only soda that could be legally sold to the Soviet population. This worked out well until the 1980s, when vodka was no longer high enough in value to cover the costs of the Soviet’s Pepsi. So, Russia proposed a different type of exchange and traded Pepsi some boats and submarines instead. Three billion dollars’ worth. For the price of 17 submarines and a cruiser, frigate, and destroyer, the Russian population could continue to enjoy its soda. 

As for Pepsi, it had just become the sixth most powerful military world-wide. This is a distinction not shared by any other beverage-making companies either before or after this remarkable event as far as we are aware. However, as their specialty is drinks and snacks and not maintaining a maritime fleet, Pepsi eventually sold the lot for reuse of its materials. Mr. Kendall, who had made history that day by giving Khrushchev some happiness in a cup, later joked that his company was better at disarming the Soviet Union than our government.  

Coca Cola Losing Further Ground in Russia

However, Coca-Cola was less than amused. Cut out of the Soviet market due to the exclusive agreement between Russia’s government and PepsiCo representatives, the competing brand was only allowed to sell its Fanta and Minute Maid products instead. They were far from the only ones upset about the arrangement. Other skeptics to the deal suggested that Pepsi purchases funded the manufacturing of Russian nuclear missiles. One could only hope that, if this were true, the joy the beverage gave both the Russian population and its leadership made it less likely that they would be tempted to use them.

Pepsi-Cola has come a long way since it was first made in 1898. What do you think the brand’s biggest accomplishment has been? Let us know in the comments! 

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SIM REPLACEMENT IN NIGERIA GETS NEW RULES

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The Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) has unveiled new Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) replacement rules for individuals, corporate organisations and IoT/machine to machine.

NCC released a new comprehensive document bearing the guidelines for both individuals and corporate consumers recently. The NCC, in the document titled, ‘Business Rules and Operational Processes for Implementation of the SIM Replacement Guidelines 2022’ noted that the processes would govern SIM replacement of individuals and corporate (IoT and M2M) bodies.

According to the Commission, these processes shall be read in conjunction with the SIM Replacement Guidelines 2021 and the provisions of the Revised National Identity Policy for SIM Registration.

NCC stated that the use of NIN is mandatory for all SIM replacement. The commission said adequate quality assurance measures shall be built into the validation and verification processes to ensure the accuracy of verifications/validations. It stressed that where Bank Verification Number (BVN) generated NIN is flagged by NIMC, communication service providers shall not conduct SIM replacement for Individual and corporate (IoT/M2M) subscribers. Communication service provider shall advise the subscriber to return to NIMC office for regularisation.

According to NCC, where communications service providers are unable to successfully verify the subscriber’s NIN records due to degradation in the service availability threshold, communications service providers are to refer to Appendix 2 of the Business Rules for SIM Registration.

In respect of foreigners who wish to perform SIM replacement, NCC said foreigners, who are lawfully residing in Nigeria for two years or more fall under the category of registrable persons, shall require a NIN for SIM replacement while foreigners validly transiting through Nigeria or are employed in or reside in Nigeria for less than 24 months are exempted from the mandatory use of NIN requirement.

According to NCC, persons in this category need to justify that they will be residing in Nigeria for less than two years. NIN is mandatory for foreigners with legal residency status or those living in Nigeria for two years and above.

For those who do not already have a NIN, NCC said communications service providers shall capture the resident’s details for NIN issuance as part of the NIN enrolment process, upon presentation of residents’ permits. It added that foreigners with Visitor’s visas (with visas less than two years) do not require a NIN.

NCC said communications service providers will capture the following on their records before new SIM activations, MNP and SIM replacements: International passport biodata page and visa page.

Further, communications service providers shall capture live facial images of the subscriber during SIM replacements for effective verification. Where subscribers’ fingerprint or facial image or passport photograph (Corporate subscriber) matches NIMC and SIM registration records, other forms of validations shall not be required. The commission noted that communications service providers shall provide service, obtain consent and update subscriber SIM Registration records with NIMC data, following verification of biometrics. For this purpose, SIM replacement Forms shall be updated with the consent form provision.

According to the document, where primary telecoms master’s NIN data and communications service provider’s SIM registration records match, and secondary telecoms master’s NIN is successfully verified, other forms of verification shall not be required.

The NCC noted that where primary telecoms master’s NIN data and communications service provider’s SIM registration KYC records do not match (or where primary telecoms master’s SIM registration database is not available), SIM registration data shall be updated with NIN details upon facial verification of primary telecom master’s passport photograph and consent form from the corporate subscriber.

For SIM replacement/upgrades on secondary lines, secondary telecoms master’s NIN shall be validated as part of corporate subscriber’s SIM-NIN harmonisation before SIM replacement is carried out.

NCC said SIM replacement/upgrade for primary telecom master shall not require secondary NIN validation, adding that any peculiar request different from any corporate entity, which is at variance to the general rules on corporate and IoT/M2M SIM activation and replacement shall be treated on a case by case basis after such corporate entity procures a waiver from NCC and upon written directives from the commission to the concerned communications service provider.

The telecoms regulator said a check must be carried out by the communications service providers for all new activations and Port-in requests to ensure that the limit on the number of activations per subscriber as specified by the commission from time to time is strictly adhered
to.

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FG committed to building collaborations, synergies to develop non-oil sector- Minister 

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The Minister of State, Industry,Trade and Investment, Amb.  Mariam Katagum has reiterated Federal Government commitment to developing the non -oil sector, especially the Agricultural sector.

Katagum said this in Abuja at the inauguration of the women Agro Processors Agricgen and Exporters Initiative (Wapagein).

According to her, one of the key priorities of the President Muhammadu Buhari’s led Administration is the development of the non-oil sector and premium is being placed on the Agricultural sector.

“This administration is keen on implementing policies and Programmes aimed at supporting women in business and also encourages harnessing available resources aimed at strengthening financial capacity of women “she said.

The President , WAPAGEIN, Mrs Esther Adebayo, in her keynote address, said that the newly birthed Organisation would promote agric-business through product value additions for export into International markets.

“Our goal is to facilitate, improve and promote Agricultural productivity marketing of explortable products and sustainably move women and youth out of chronic vulnerability and poverty.

“We are also looking at forming co-operatives ,organise and encourage women producers , processors ,small holder farmers and exports .

“We must move away from the youth empowerment programmes as it were,the youth need investments and Agro-business is well loaded with millions of job creation for the youths,” she said.

She noted that the activities of the Organisation would also promote sustainable household food security through urban household farming which will ensure and guarantee Nigeria’s export business.

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EKWEREMADU SIGNED ZONING AGREEMENT – ENUGU WEST LEADERS RELEASE DOCUMENT

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The last is yet to be heard on the controversies surrounding the zoning of governorship position in Enugu State.

Former Deputy Senate President, Senator Ike Ekweremadu had last week challenged proponents of zoning to show evidence where any such meeting held.

In what appears to be a response to that challenge, Enugu West leaders, under the umbrella of Ife Emelumma addressed journalists in Enugu on Tuesday, where they displayed a document showing a meeting where zoning was discussed at a Peoples Democratic Party, PDP, caucus meeting in 2013.

The press briefing was addressed by Senator Prince Ben Collins Ndu, flanked by other leaders from his Enugu West zone.

He said at a well attended meeting in 2013, the State caucus agreed on the rotation of the governorship position and it was signed by over 50 stakeholders, including Senator Ekweremadu.

According to Senator Ndu, the motion for the zoning and rotation of the guber position was moved by Chief Dubem Onyia and seconded by himself after an amendment by Chief Barr COC Egumgbe.

“The motion was adopted and signed by more than 50 participants that included among others, Dr. Okwesilieze Nwodo, Senator Ike Ekweremadu, Rt. Hon. Eugene Odo, Engr. Vitta Abba.

“I wonder why my brother and friend, Senator Ike Ekweremadu who was physically present in the caucus meeting and who is a Christian, last Saturday at Solid FM, during Lenten period, told a big lie that there is no zoning in Enugu State.

“For record purposes and to avoid any benefit of doubt, there is written zoning and rotation of governorship position in Enugu State.”

While displaying the document showing the resolution at the said 2013 meeting and the signatories, the leaders called on “all peace loving citizens of Enugu West Senatorial zone and indeed Enugu State to disregard these lies perpetrated by my brother and friend Senator Ike Ekweremadu since the zoning and rotation of governorship seat and other positions in Enugu State have brought enormous peace and progress in the State.

“I urge my brother and Senator, Ike Ekweremadu to maintain his 2013 commitment in support of a rotational zoning arrangement so as to ensure continuous peace in our dear State.”

On whether Enugu West was being marginalized as declared by Senator Ekweremadu, Ndu said the lawmaker should not do a u-turn because of his interest, stressing “he was at the caucus meeting and signed the document, he didn’t raise any issue of marginalization then. So, whatever he is saying now is medicine after death.”

He, however, expressed optimism that Senator Ekweremadu would see reasons and change his mind.

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